Objectives: Define hypha, mycelium, sporangium, zygosporangium, ascus, conidium, ascospore, ascocarp, basidium, basidiospore, basidiocarp Recognize representatives of 3 major phyla of fungi Distinguish structures that place representatives of fungi in proper phyla Distinguish structures in asexual versus sexual reproduction Phylum Zygomycota: zygosporangium forming fungi 1. Eventually, the secondary mycelium generates a basidiocarp, which is a fruiting body that protrudes from the ground—this is what we think of as a mushroom. The basidiocarp bears the developing basidia on the gills under its cap. Figure 2. The lifecycle of a basidiomycete alternates generation with a prolonged stage in which two nuclei (dikaryon) are present in the hyphae. Practice Question From dikaryotic mycelium, basidiocarp is developed in favourable seasons. Reproductive Structure: Basidiocarp: It is soft, stipitate and lamellae or gills radiate from stipe. A mature basidiocarp is whitish in colour. The gills are formed by an extension of the hyphae of the pileus. A cross-section of a gill shows that the bulk of the tissue is composed of compact hyphae. The middle part of Vegetative mycelium of H. jacksonii grows in the subiculum and subhymenium of the host, and scattered asci emerge among the basidia of the normally developed carpophore. It apparently does little harm to its host. The other species of the genus parasitize members of the Leotiales (see “Leotiales” under “Ascomycota,” in the section “Taxonomic Groups of Fungicolous Fungi and Fungus Arrange the following from largest to smallest, assuming that they all come from the same fungus. 1. basidiocarp 2. basidium 3. basidiospore 4. mycelium 5. gill Mycelial growth and basidiocarp production of wild hairy sawgill Lentinus strigosus , a new record of naturally occurring mushroom in the Philippines April 2017 Biocatalysis and Agricultural Periodically, the extraradical mycelium is also involved in initiating fungal reproductive structures (basidiocarps or ascocarps) and, as has been shown under greenhouse conditions for Pinus strobus - Laccaria bicolor ectomycorrhizal associations, basidiocarp formation is dependent upon current photosynthates from the host tree (Lamhamedi, Godbout & Fortin, 1994) and can be affected by Secondary mycelium can perennate in the soil or wood by means of sclerotia (often rounded or ellipsoid firm masses of hyphae) or rhizomorphs (root-like aggregation of hyphae with well defined apical meristems). 14. Dikaryophase or secondary mycelium may multiply by different types of spores— chlamydospores, aecidiospores, uredospores, teleutospores, etc. 15. Karyogamy and meiosis occur in Basidiocarp, in fungi, a large sporophore, or fruiting body, in which sexually produced spores are formed on the surface of club-shaped structures (basidia). Basidiocarps are found among the members of the phylum Basidiomycota (q.v.), with the exception of the rust and smut fungi. The largest Basidiocarp definition is - the basidium-bearing fruiting body of a basidiomycete.
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